Gabriel Garcia Marquez
Gabriel José Garcia Marquez (6 March 1928 - )
A Colombian novelist, journalist, publisher, and political activist, Garcia (also known as Gabo) was born in Aracataca. When his parents left him, he was reared by his grandparents, studied in Barranqilla, then moved to Bogotá where at the ]http://www.unal.edu.co National University of Colombia] and later at the University of Cartegana he studied law and journalism.
Upon receiving the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1982, the Nobel Foundation described him as follows:
- Gabriel García Márquez was born in 1928 in the small town of Aracataca, situated in a tropical region of northern Colombia, between the mountains and the Caribbean Sea. He grew up with his maternal grandparent - his grandfather was a pensioned colonel from the civil war at the beginning of the century. He went to a Jesuit college and began to read law, but his studies were soon broken off for his work as a journalist. In 1954 he was sent to Rome* on an assignment for his newspaper, and since then he has mostly lived abroad - in Paris, New York, Barcelona and Mexico - in a more or less compulsory exile. Besides his large output of fiction he has written screenplays and has continued to work as a journalist.
- La hojarasca. Bogotá: Ed. S. L. B., 1955.
- El coronel no tiene quien le escriba. Medellín: Auguirre Ed., 1961.
- La mala hora. Madrid: Talleres de Gráficas "Luis Pérez", 1962 (ed. desautorizada por el autor); 2. ed.: Mexico: Ed. Era, 1966.
- Los funerales de la Mamá Grande. Xalapa 1962.
- Cien anos de soledad. Buenos Aires: Ed. Sudamericana, 1967.
- Monólogo de Isabel viendo llover en Macondo. 1969.
- Relato de un náufrago. Barcelona: Tusquets Ed., 1970.
- La increíble y triste historia de la cándida Eréndira y de su abuela desalmada. Barcelona: Barral Ed., 1972.
- Chile, el golpe y los gringos. 1974.
- Ojos de perro azul. Barcelona: Plaza y Janés, 1974.
- Cuando era feliz e indocumentado. Barcelona: Plaza y Janes, 1975.
- El otono del patriarca. Barcelona: Plaza y Janes, 1975.
- Todos los cuentos. Barcelona: Ed. Bruguera, 1975.
- Obra periodística. Vol. 1: Textos costenos. Barcelona: Ed. Bruguera, 1981.
- Crónica de una muerte anunciada. Barcelona: Ed. Bruguera, 1981.
- El rastro de tu sangre en la nieve: el verano feliz de la senora Forbes. Bogotá: W. Dampier Editores, 1982.
- Viva Sandino. Managua: Nueva Nicaragua, 1982.
- El secuestro (screenplay). Salamanca: Lóquez, 1982.
- El asalto: el operativo con el FSLN se lanzo al mundo, Nueva Nicaragua, 1983.
- Erendira (screenplay from his own novella), N.P., Les Films du Triangle, 1983.
- El amor en los tiempos de cólera. Bogotá: Oveja Negra, 1985.
- El general en su laberinto. Bogotá: Oveja Negra, 1989.
- Doce cuentos peregrinos. Bogotá: Oveja Negra, 1992.
- In English
- Leaf Storm, and Other Stories. (La hojarasca. 1955) Transl. by G. Rabassa. London: Cape, 1972; New York: Harper & Row, 1972, 1979; Pan Books, 1979.
- No One Writes to the Colonel. (El coronel no tiene quien le escriba. 1961.) Transl. by. S. Bernstein. London: Cape, 1971; New York: Harper & Row, 1979.
- An Evil Hour. (La mala hora. 1962.) Transl. by G. Rabassa. New York: Harper & Row, 1979.
- Big Mama's Funeral. (Los funerales de la Mamá Grande.1962.) (Published with: No One Writes to the Colonel. See above.)
- Lone Hundred Years of Solitude. (Cien anos de soledad. 1967.) Transl. by G. Rabassa. New York: Harper & Row, 1970; Pan Books, 1980.
- Innocent Eréndira, and Other Stories. (La increible y triste historia de la cándida Eréndira... 1972). Transl. by G. Rabassa. New York: Harper & Row, 1978, 1979; Pan Books, 1981.
- The Autumn of the Patriarch. (El otono del patriarca, 1975.) Transl. by G. Rabassa. New York: Harper & Row, 1976; Pan Books, 1978.
- Chronicle of a Death Foretold. (Crónica de una muerte anunciada, 1981.) Transl. by G. Rabassa. London: Cape, 1982.
- Collected Stories. New York: Harper, 1984; revised edition, London: Cape, 1991.
- Love in the Time of Cholera (El amor en los tiempos de cólera). Transl. by E. Grossman. New York: Knopf and London: Cape, 1988.
- Diatribe of Love Against a Seated Man (play produced in Buenos Aires, 1988).
- Collected Novellas. New York: Harper Collins, 1990.
- The General in his Labyrinth (El general en su laberinto). Transl. by E. Grossman. New York: Knopf, 1990 and London: Cape, 1991.
- From Nobel Lectures, Literature 1981-1990, Editor-in-Charge Tore Frängsmyr, Editor Sture Allén, World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore, 1993 - This autobiography/biography was first published in the book series Les Prix Nobel. It was later edited and republished in Nobel Lectures. To cite this document, always state the source as shown above. * In his autobiographical book Vivir para contarla (2002) Gabriel García Márquez mentions Genève as the first town he was sent to.
In common with many fellow Latin American intellectuals, Vargas Llosa was initially a supporter of the Cuban revolutionary government of Fidel Castro, but he eventually became disenchanted with the totalitarian policies of the Cuban government and moved considerably to the right.
In La Jornada, photographer Rodrigo Moya was asked about his having taken the photo of Garcia Marquez's black eye, and he wrote that at a movie theater packed with people attending the premiere of a film about the plane crash survivors in the Andes who turned to cannibalism, Vargas had rushed up to Garcia, who innocently tried to embrace him. Instead Vargas hit him, Garcia's blood gushing everywhere. Moya said the cause was not political but, rather, it was personal: Garcia had consoled Vargas's wife during a difficult period in the marriage.